1.What political, economic, and technological factors allowed Spain and Portugal to explore new trade routes?Political, both were steady inside politically and religiously. This implied that assets, manpower, and energies could be coordinated outwards instead of being expected to manage inward issues. Economic, Development of the Ottoman empire, and specifically their catch of Constantinople in 1453, meant that the conventional land exchanging courses with Asia had been cut off. Europe subsequently expected to discover alternative routes that bypassed Muslim controlled areas, and these were accessible via ocean if they could be searched out an established. Any nation that might do as such would make colossal benefits re-sending out exchange merchandise from Asia to whatever is left of Europe.Technological, The creation of the caravel, a new kind of ship. Narrow and maneuverable, with a stern mounted rudder that made it less demanding to guide in a straight line and lateen fixed sails that implied it could tack against the wind, a caravel could move substantially speedier than past maritime ships. The development of the Sailor’s astrolabe implied that ship could check its position each day, which thusly implied it was significantly more secure and snappier to make long trips over the untamed ocean – delivers never again needed to keep relative near the drift when making voyages. Why were the Spanish able to establish a territorial empire in the New WorldThe Spanish were able to establish a territorial empire in the New World on account of three fundamental elements. One, the Amerindians’ absence of protection from maladies brought from the Eastern Hemisphere. That was how the Spanish able to establish a territorial empire in the New World.What were the long-term political effects of the Protestant Reformation.The Reformation had enduring effects. For example, Luther stands trial, Peasants revolt against nobles, German Princes apply Luther’s ideas in their territories, Martin Luther is excommunicated from the catholic church. The Reformation made a divide between Catholic, and Protestant countries. So, France, and Spain became enemies of Germany. 4.Who was Machiavelli and what political advice did he advocate?Niccolo Machiavelli was an author during the Renaissance who grew up in the Republic of Florence. At the time he grew up in, Machiavelli’s home of Italy was a battleground for the stronger powers of France, Spain, the Papacy, and other powerful nations at the time. Machiavelli spent his lifetime involved in politics as a diplomat, going off to other countries at the time for meetings on the interests of Florence. Years later, Machiavelli wrote ‘The Prince’ to the Medici who ruled Florence at the time, dedicating the writing to him. ‘The Prince’ was essentially a pamphlet full of advice on how a monarch should rule and what kind of ruler the monarch should be and why republics are weak5.What were the most important elements of the Columbian exchange?The Columbian Exchange is one of the most significant results of the Age of Exploration as Columbus “discovered America” and Western Europe discovered the various economic opportunities available in the New World, agricultural exchanges between the two regions led to exchanges of other items. Within decades of Columbus’ voyages, the trans-Atlantic slave trade had begun and hundreds of thousands of Native Americans died of diseases brought to America by Europeans and Africans. New foods for both Europe and the Americas was a major part of the Columbian Exchange.6.How did the Atlantic system affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?The Atlantic system or the Triangular Trade is a network of trade established in the 1700s that bound together western Europe, Africa, and the Americas. The Europeans sold slaves from western Africa and bought commodities that were produced by the new colonial plantations in North and South America and the Caribbean. The poststained from the slave trade gave the European economy an extra source of capital. Both the Americas and Africa, whose economies depended on slavery, became useful additional export markets For British manufactures. Certain British individuals, businesses, and ports prospered based on the slave trade. Powerful Africans who engaged in slave dealing could make a sizeable port From the trade, especially in view of the relatively high prices that European merchants were prepared to pay For African slaves. As rival African rulers competed over the control of slave-capture and trading, wars could result.7.Discuss the events that led to the decline of the Mughal Empire?The events that led to the decline of the Mughal Empire where first, its boundless regional development. From Babur down to Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire had persistently broadened its regional limits. Second, in the pervasive arrangement of Mughal government the empire or the Badsah was the sole capable man. In such a framework the capacity and identity of the ruler was the absolute most critical factor. Third, the shortcoming of the military framework was another factor in charge of the fall of the Mughal Domain. Aside from the absence of teach the Mughal troopers needed to battle with insufficient weapons. Fourth, towards the end of the Mughal run the inconvenience of high income request overburdened the working class. Even though different elements were in charge of the episode of uprisings, the discontent of the workers because of taxation rate constituted the fundamental driver. The great Mughal Realm based upon the virtuoso of the great Mughals (Babur to Aurangzeb) gave suggestions or rot after the demise of Aurangzeb. The breaking points of the empire secured an immense territory from Arsam in the east to Kabul in the west, and Kashmir in the north to Mysore in the south. Why did Peter the Great wish to modernize Russia on the Western Model? Peter the Great perceived that Russia had fallen behind western Europe. Resolved to gain from his opponents, he went to Holland and Britain, where he visited shipyards, inspected new military hardware, and watched western traditions. he came back to Moscow vowing to change Russia into an awesome power. He started by growing Russia’s armed force and building another naval force. Peter the Great did not constrain his progressions to military association and innovation. He enhanced Russian farming by presenting the potato, fortified the Russian economy by bringing in gifted laborers, and freed Russian ladies by enabling them to show up out in the open without cover. In an acclaimed and much loathed act, dwindle constrained nobles to shave off their conventional long beard.9.How did events in the eighteenth-century lead to industrialization in the nineteenth century? What was the most important catalyst for industrialization?During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Britain experienced change in all aspects of life, because of the Industrial Revolution. Scientific advances and technological innovations brought growth in agricultural and industrial production, economic expansion and changes in living conditions, while at the same time there was a new sense of national identity and civic pride. The most dramatic changes were witnessed in rural areas, where the provincial landscape often became urban and industrialized following advances in agriculture, industry and shipping. Wealth accumulated in the regions and there was soon a need for country banking. the introduction of steam power was a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution.Discuss the significance of the Factory Act of 1833 and the Mine Act 1842?The significance of the Factory Act of 1833 was that no child workers under nine years of age, employers must have an age certificate for their child workers, children of 9-13 years to work no more than nine hours a day, children of 13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day, children are not to work at night, two hours schooling each day for children, and four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law.The Mines Act of 1842, was an act (Links to an external site.) of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Links to an external site.). It prohibited (banned) all girls and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines. It was a response to the working conditions of children revealed in the Children’s Employment Commission (Mines) 1842 report.