Bowlby believed an attachment can only occur with one
figure, typically the mother. However, Chloe has more than one attachment
figure, including Amy, a practitioner that worked with Chloe in the toddler
room and Chloe’s mother which has been shown through the observations and
evidence from the parent interview. This shows that attachment being
‘monotropic’ is not certain. As well as this, it is typical for a child to form
attachments within the family. Holmes (2014) states that a child’s attachment
can be viewed as a hierarchy, indicating the mother may not be at the top
always.

Aimsworth (1970) further developed Bowlby’s ideas and
identified three main attachment styles: secure attachment, ambivalent
attachment, and avoidant attachment. The secure attachment style is where a
child becomes visibly upset when their caregiver leaves and is happy when they
return. Whilst the caregiver is present, the child is confident with the
stranger. The child is co-operative with others and believes their needs will
be met. This attachment style describes Chloe’s behaviour during the toddler
stage. The interview with the parent suggests that Chloe would show distress
and anxiety when being separated from her mother during drop off at nursery and
when her mother would arrive to collect Chloe, happiness and excitement was
evident at when her mother returns.

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Furthermore, a preschool child can understand their parent’s
explanation due to their improved memory and understanding of time and daily
routines. This is shown in observation 6 (see appendix 6), during drop off,
Chloe’s mother explains to Chloe her routine which Chloe understands. This is
important because she may still miss her mother, but now can use the events in
her routine of the nursery as markers that tell her when to expect her mother’s
return.

Erikson’s (1959) theory of psychosocial development has
eight stages, from infancy to adulthood. At each stage, a person faces a crisis
which needs to be resolved for us to develop socially and emotionally. Each
stage has a positive or negative outcome. If the person does not overcome this
crisis of his or her developmental stage, they are likely to become continuing
problems. The outcome of the stage is determined by the individual’s
environment, as well as the care giving strategies or experiences to which they
are exposed to. From 3-5, the initiative vs guilt stage begins.