Bachelor the unit outline). ? the assessment tasks are

 

 

 

 

Bachelor
of Engineering (Crescent)

 

 

 

 

POWER ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

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Assignment 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student Name:

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Date:

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Assessed By:

 

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Created By:

Akhtar Kalam.

Date:

January 2018

 

 

 

 

Reviewed By:

Akhtar Kalam.

Date:

January 2018

 

 

 

 

Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)

 

 

General Information for Candidates

 

How is this task assessed?

At the
senior Bachelor’s Degree level you will be able to demonstrate the application
of knowledge and skills:

 

?     with creativity and initiative to new situations in professional
practice and/or for further learning

 

?     with high
level personal autonomy and accountability

 

?     to plan
and execute a substantial research based project, capstone experience and/or
piece of

scholarship

 

Grades

HD – High
Distinction 85-100%

 

D  – Distinction 75-84%

 

C  – Credit 65-74%

 

 

F  – Fail 0-49%

 

Decisions will be based on the
following considerations:

 

?     
all parts
of the assessment task/s have been completed to a standard that satisfactorily
meets the requirements set out in all of the assessment criteria (as set out in
the unit outline).

 

?     
the
assessment tasks are the student’s own work, except as appropriately
acknowledged by the use of referencing.

 

?     
correct
use of IEEE reference style for all researched evidence

 

?     
the
researched evidence is recent and knowledge is up-to-date

 

?     
the
researched evidence is consistent showing competency over a period of time
suggesting sustained performance (i.e. not just a one off).

 

Assessment Task Instructions:

1.      
The best
marks can be earned by giving concise brief answers that addresses the
questions as put to you.

 

2.      
The time
indicated is tentative and is not meant to restrict your answers

 

3.      
The main
idea behind the use of assignment questions are for you, the student, to learn
and understand the material by reading it and answering the questions as put.
Cutting and pasting from internet sites or the study material does not enhance
that learning process. However, appropriate diagrams can be pasted if you
cannot draw them, but make sure you acknowledge the source by referencing.

 

4.      
Attempt
ALL questions

 

5.      
Use this
document for furnishing your answers by typing the answers after each question
without deleting the question. Use this Microsoft Word document as it stands.
Make sure that you preserve the original question number format and that you
don’t change the question numbers by adding extra lines or deleting existing
ones.

 

6.      
Do not
add extra pictures etc. as Annexures but add the pictures and diagrams directly
into this main answer sheet by pasting. Hand drawn sketches can be inserted
after scanning but please ensure that the assignment file size does not become
big (more than 10 MB).

 

7.      
Refer in
the text to diagrams and pictures etc. that you have drawn or pasted in. Do not
only paste them into the document without referring to them in the text.

 

8.      
Finally,
when saving your document (it must be in WORD FORMAT), ensure you save the
title to include your name : COURSECODE_UNIT#_ASSIGNMENT_VERSION#_YOURNAME

 

E.g. Assignment1_v1_BOB_BROWN

 

9.       Please
ensure that all answers must be in your own words. Copying and pasting is not
allowed. Plagiarism can affect your academic progression at VU. Plagiarism
software will be used to identify any possible cases of plagiarism. Refer to VU
Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Detection Policy and Software Guidelines.

 

10.   
Please
ensure you sign and date the below statement to verify your assessment
submission as your own material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HE_Assignment1_YOUR NAME HERE_v3docx

Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)

 

 

I certify
that the attached assignment is my own work and that any material drawn from
other sources has been acknowledged.

 

Copyright
in assignments remains my property. I grant permission to Victoria University
(VU)to make copies of assignments for assessment, review and/or record keeping
purposes. I note that the VUreserves the right to check my assignment for
plagiarism. Should the reproduction of all or part of an assignment be required
by the VU for any purpose other than those mentioned above, appropriate
authorization will be sought from me on the relevant form.

 

Please place an ‘X’ in the box below to indicate
that you have read, understood and certify the above statement. Please include
this page in/with your submission. Please submit your assignment directly to
the Unit Coordinator.

 

AGREEMENT:

yes

DATE:   29.01.18
G SESHA KANNAN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HE_Assignment1_YOUR NAME HERE_v3docx

Bachelor of
Engineering (Crescent)

 

Power Engineering Principles

 

This assignment will contribute 20% weight towards the overall grade for
this unit. Suggested time allocation to complete this assignment is 3 hours.

 

Rationale:

 

This
assessment item will evaluate your achievement standard for the learning
outcomes 1 of this unit and demonstrating the attainment of VU graduate
attributes. Learning outcome:

 

1.     
Discriminate between the elements
of the supply chain and how they function in order to map and interrogate the
roles of transmission, distribution, and auxiliary networks.

 

2.     
Contextualise alternative
generation such as hydro generation, wind and solar generation and other energy
generation systems to known and unknown situations

 

Graduate Attributes:

 

A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse, and organize
information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in
both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.

 

B2.  Ability to innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and
approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.

 

D1.
Breadth and depth of knowledge of engineering and understanding of future
developments.

 

C1. Cognitive skills to
synthesise, evaluate and use information from range of sources to effectively
identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.

 

C3. Comprehension of the role of
technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology
ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.

 

E1.
Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.

E2.
Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.

 

 

You are required to answer short essay type
problems totalling about 200 words to each question demonstrating a deep
understanding of energy sources and different methods of power generation and energy
storage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HE_Assignment1_YOUR NAME HERE_v3docx

Bachelor of Engineering (Crescent)

 

Assignment
1 Questions

INSTRUCTIONS:
Short answers, + 200 words required to each
question.

 

 

 

QUESTION 1

Explain
the following:

 

?     Working
principles and functions of a Generator in a power system layout.

 

?     Laws of Electromagnetic Induction and the rule which states the
direction of induced E.M.F and current.

 

?     Mutual Induction in a Transformer along with the E.M.F equation and
Voltage Transformer Ratio.

 

 

QUESTION 2

1.     
What is reactive power

2.      What
causes low power factor in Electrical System

3.      How to
improve Power Factor

 

QUESTION 3

 

Research and explain how in a transmission system,
the stability and efficiency, and Power Factor of the system are affected by
the type of connected load. Elaborate the above specifically with respect to
linear and non-linear loads (like power supply rectifier, electric welding
machine, or arc furnace).

 

 

QUESTION 4

 

Discuss the past, present, and future trends of power industry in
respect to a particular country, for example, your own country.

 

 

QUESTION 5

 

Discuss environmental impacts of power generation from fossil fuel,
especially the impacts by coal-fired power plants.

 

QUESTION 6

 

List benefits of solar energy. Also explain why with so many benefits,
the utility and infrastructure development of solar energy generation is
limited?

 

 

QUESTION 7

 

Compare the accidents of Chernobyl disaster (1986) and Fukushima (2011)
in relation to nuclear power generation.

 

 

QUESTION 8

 

Research and elaborate on the benefits of using Natural gas for power
generation and substantiate with data to highlight that this energy fuel is
gaining popularity in country like Australia.

 

 

 

 

 

END OF
ASSIGNMENT 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 1

Explain the following:

 

?       Working
principles and functions of a Generator in a power system layout.

 

?       Laws
of Electromagnetic Induction and the rule which states the direction of induced
E.M.F and current.

 

?       Mutual
Induction in a Transformer along with the E.M.F equation and Voltage
Transformer Ratio.

 

The
generator used in a power system layout is an alternator.

1.    
WORKING PRINCIPLE :

Ø Similar to the principle in a DC
generator.

Ø It also depends on Faradays Law
of electromagnetic induction which states current is induced in the conductor
inside a magnetic field when there is a relative motion between that conductor
and the magnetic field.

Function:

Ø Most of the electrical power generators are three
phase synchronous generators

Ø  Synchronous
motors are competitive in highern power ranges because of efficiency and lower costs  Reluctance and permanent motors are popular
atn lower power ranges

 

2.  
 Faraday’s Electromagnetic Induction state
that whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field emf are induced known
as induced emf, if the conductor circuit is closed current are
also induced which is called induced current.

 

 

3.  
The term mutual inductance
refers to magnetic flux in each inductors is linked ,so that the voltage
induced in the coil is equal to the other coil. A transformer is a device with
two inductor ,in a transformer supply AC is connected to a primary winding ,
phenomenon of mutual inductance the voltage induced in the primary winding is
linked with the secondary winding.

 

Voltage transformer
ratio : E1/N1= E2/N2=K

 

QUESTION
2

1.     What is
reactive power

2.    
What
causes low power factor in Electrical System

3.      How to improve Power Factor

 

1.   
In
electric power transmission and distribution volt ampere reactive (VAR) is a
unit by which reactive power is expressed in an AC electric system

 

2.   
The main
cause is inductive load. As in the pure inductive circuit current lags 90
degree from voltage this large difference of phase angle between current and
voltage causes low power factor.

 

3.      We can improve power factor by
reducing the  phase difference between
voltage and current. Since majority of loads are of inductive nature, they
require some amount of reactive power for them to function. This is provided by
capacitors placed parallel to load.

 

QUESTION
3

 

Research
and explain how in a transmission system, the stability and efficiency, and
Power Factor of the system are affected by the type of connected load.
Elaborate the above specifically with respect to linear and non-linear loads
(like power supply rectifier, electric welding machine, or arc furnace).  

 

QUESTION
4

=

Discuss
the past, present, and future trends of power industry in respect to a
particular country, for example, your own country.

 

PAST:

In past
India were producing power using thermal and hydro plants. They where the main
source of power. Due to the less availability of water hydro power was very
difficult to generate. In India many dams very dried up and only during the
rainy seasons they where able to generate power.Also the government was facing
many loss because of hydro.

 

PRESENT :

Sttil we
use thermal and hydro power plants. And addition to that we use nuclear
,solar,wind ,bio mass  power plants. Tremendous
amount of energy is being generated using nuclear power plants. But only small
amount is produced from solar and wind power plants.

 

FUTURE:

There are
many innovation to generate power and lots and lots of research is going on. In
future the power generation will be 100% produced from renewable energy sources

 

 

     

 

 

8. . Research and elaborate on the benefits of using
Natural gas for power generation and substantiate with data to highlight that
this energy fuel is gaining popularity in country like Australia

   

             Natural gas has a  clean burning nature. Hence it became very  popular among  fuel for generation of electricity. Electric
utility generators were largely based on  large coal or nuclear powered plants.  However, due to economic, environmental and
technological changes and the harmful effects of coal and nuclear plants, this
paved way for  natural gas to become the
fuel of choice for new power plants built since the 1990. Due to this reason
this has become our most reliable source to generate electricity. But coal is
the cheapest way of generation of electricity. But their hazardous effects will
destroy our eco system.

             Natural gas is the third most
largest source of energy in Australia after coal and nuclear.

·       Australia’s $28 billion per year oil and gas industry contributes 58% of Australia’s primary energy.

            

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Compare the accidents of Chernobyl disaster and Fukushima relation to
nuclear power generation

Chernobyl disaster

·       A nuclear power plant in the former USSR experienced a
core melt down and a catastrophic release of radio activity into the
environment.

·       One of the operators made a mistake instead of keeping
the power output at 30% he did not reset the controller it caused the power
drop to 1%

·       Testing was carried out in a reactor to see how it
copes with low power output

·       Power levels were brought from 500mw to 30mw.

·       Power surged to 100times acceptable limits

·       Emergency situation shut down initiated.

·       But the power surge lead to a massive increase of
steam therefore pipes began to burst.reactor core began to fracture.as a result
explosion occurred.

·       Lakhs of people died.

FUKUSHIMA
:

·       The main reason for Fukhishima was earthquake and
Tsunami.

·       The earthquake was about 9.0 magnitude

·        The Tsunami
also struck the Fukushima nuclear plant

·       While the reactors were shut down safely once the
earthquake struck electric power was still needed to cool the reactor cores.

·       Backup diesel generators failed to work without the
necessary electrical power for cooling, 3 of the reactors began to going to
melt down.

 

5.   Environmental impacts on power generation from coal
fired power plants

The
impacts from coal fired power plants are :

Ø Fossil fuels constitute a siginificant repository
of  carbon buried deep underground.

Ø Results in the conversion of carbon to carbon di oxide
which is released into the atmosphere.

Ø Estimated CO2 emission from worlds electrical power
industry is 10 billion tons yearly which results in greenhouse and contributes
to global warming

Ø Other emission such as Ozone, sulphur dioxide, NO2,
and other gases are often released.

Ø Sulphur and nitrogen oxides contribute to smog and
acid rain.

Ø In past plant owners address this problem by buildind
very tall flue gas stacks so that the pollutants would be diluted in the
atmosphere

Ø Coal burning has significant impact on habitat and
species

Ø It is very difficult to handle its waste and special
attention to manage the ashes produced from it.

 

6.    List the
benefits of solar energy. Also explain why with so many benefits, the utility
and infrastructure development of solar energy is limited.

 

Solar
energy is a natures gift for us. There are numerous benefits of solar energy
and almost all the power needed to drive the earth can the easily generated
from SOLAR !

     Some of the  benefits of solar energy are :

1.   Easily available and you don’t need to pay it

2.   100% renewable source of energy and doesn’t emit any
greenhouse gases

3.   Solar energy can be generated by anyone just by using
solar panels and doesn’t depend on anyone for it.

4.   Easy to setup anywhere

5.   Excess solar energy can be stored in battery and can
be used in the future

6.   With the advancements in solar panels such as the
Solar roof tiles, it can be used as a roof and also it generates energy.

 

·       Since the government have spent billions of
dollars  in construction of thermal power
plants and nuclear power plants it is difficult for them to invest in solar
power.

·       Those plants generate huge profit to the government
and it is the most dependable source for government to supply power to the
public

·       Since the demand for solar panels is very low ,the
cost of solar panels is very high.

·        They are of no
use during the winter seasons.

These
are some of the reasons why the development of solar energy generation is
limited

               

But Countries like  Germany ,Japan ,China, Italy, USA meet most
of their energy demands from solar power.

China is one of the countries
which is a large emitter of carbon.

They have managed to reduce
it with solar power.