BackgroundThe Central African Republic (CAR) has sustained many instabilities and breakdowns throughout its years as a country, and continues to fight to stay together in modern times. CAR has been highly unstable since its independence from France in 1960, specifically because of the government failing from changing constantly, and religiously motivated rebel groups constantly engaged in battles.1 CAR is in an emergency state even today as the country has gone through approximately seven different government leaders since its creation, a high amount in a worryingly short period. Colonized by the French around 1880, the area was first named Ubangi-Chari, and was under French control and government systems for many years.2 Under newly elected leader, Boganda, in 1958 the territory achieved self government within the French Federation.3 Later in 1960, the area was renamed to the Central African Republic and became independent from the French. Five years later, in 1965, a man named Jean-Bedel Bokassa ousted former leader Dacko and decided to claim leadership of CAR.4 Bokassa’s leadership sparked protests and the unstable government faced bankruptcy and endless issues. The changing hands of power too often lead to no real economic or social improvements for the country. Bokassa was eliminated in a coup by Dacko and the French government in 1979, but his rule didn’t last long because in 1981 an army commander, Andre Kolingba, overthrew Dacko, and Bokassa was sent into exile.5 Later in 1993, elections were held, and a new candidate, Ange-Felix Patasse, beat out Kolingba and Dacko, ending the twelve year military reign.6 Then in the late 1990s, mutinies and protests broke out among soldiers and regular citizens over too-low civil servant wages. Soon after, French troops evacuated the country and were replaced with the country’s own army in 1999, while Patasse was re-elected as President in the same year.7 In 2002, Libyan forces backing the now-rebel Bozize, helped overthrow Patasse. Bozize won an election in a run-off vote, as the state of the country continued to deteriorate. Bangui, the capital of CAR, flooded in 2005, and an estimated 20,000 people fled their homes.8 This flood accounted for a large portion of the number of displaced people in CAR, since those affected cannot return to their homes, and the government is not supporting them. Rebel groups are growing larger currently, and the new leader has signed with multiple rebel groups to attempt a ceasefire agreement.9 The country has been officially in a state of civil war since 2012 to the present, with the ex-government Muslim group the Seleka, engaging in a battle with the primarily Christian Anti-Balaka group. The Seleka group was originally created for the CAR government to protect small villages and citizens at risk. However, the group over time turned into a Christian rebel movement that operates on the philosophy that the Muslim population of the country is their opposition. The Anti-Balaka group holds the opposite belief that the Seleka Christians are the problem.10 The two groups claim revenge on each other to justify their fights, and clash over their religions’ differences.11 On a separate but related note, CAR ranks 172 out of 176 countries on the Human Development Index in terms of severe poverty in citizens.12 Which affects cities around Bangui that are the most poverty stricken and affected by the lack of government and infrastructure, which ties into the high crime and violence rates. Bangui, the capital city, is the current safest part of all of CAR, so a majority of issues occur outside of the area. In terms of support from neighboring countries, other areas outside of CAR’s official borders are helping to stop the conflict as well. Neighboring countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Chad, and Gabon had deployed forces to restore peace in CAR until around 2006. Most foreign forces are also withdrawing, with the exception of the United States, which is commonly blamed for an upsurge in violence. At this juncture in the Central African Republic, over 1 million people have left their homes and have been displaced, with over 6,000 people killed as of December 2017.13Country PolicyThe United Kingdom (UK) takes a proactive and supportive stance in helping the Central African Republic through its conflicts. For example, the UK’s key human rights objective in CAR in 2015 was to secure an end to rebels and groups that encourage widespread abuse of persons and their rights, through support to both security sector reform and elections.14 To a military end, we supported the EU Military Advisory Mission, which provides the government of CAR with expert advice to reform the military, and provided diplomatic and financial support to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA).15 UK aid also supported programs addressing the protection and health needs of victims of violence, and aiming to prevent human rights abuse.16 We welcomed the passing of the law creating the Special Criminal Court (SCC), and worked with CAR authorities and international partners to support it.17 We believe that the SCC can play a large role in turning the tables against war criminals and human rights violators. In a significant development, presidential elections went ahead in a largely peaceful manner.18 This election was the first peaceful election in CAR since 2016, and we are proud to have helped CAR through a milestone.19 Allegations of sexual assault or exploitation committed by international peacekeeping troops undermined the international community’s ability to lead change. It is imperative that the unacceptable levels of human rights violations and abuses in CAR are reduced continuously in the future with programs, new laws, and improved troops. Reconciliation and the reintegration of refugees or internally displaced people is incredibly important, as well as bringing an end to impunity, while continued security sector reform will help strengthen critical institutions. Refugees and displaced peoples deserve special attention that the UK plans to give now and in the future. The peace-keeping mission MINUSCA will need to play a critical role alongside CAR authorities and supportive countries, to address the insecurity across the country. Successful legislative elections and efforts to rebuild the judiciary will facilitate this progress, along with our proposed government reform and checks and balances system.20 We will continue to work with the new government and international partners to achieve these goals to improve upon all issues in CAR. UN InvolvementThe United Nations (UN) has tried to help the Central African Republic to the best of their abilities. In November of 2017, the UN sent 900 more Peacekeepers, or Blue Helmets, to CAR.21 They have sent more troops to insure that the people of CAR are not living in miserable conditions. Also, MINUSCA has been under fire recently, with rebel groups actively seeking Peacekeepers and UN buildings to attack. These attacks have killed 12 Peacekeepers as of November 15, 2017 and it is predicted that more will follow.22 The Secretary General would like to shine a spotlight on this issue because very few people know about it. He would like to make sure that this issue gets more attention, funding, and support so it can be resolved.The Security Council greatly disapproves of what is happening is CAR and labels it to be incitement of ethnic and religious hatred. They consider the issues in CAR a dire humanitarian situation and their goal is to restore effective authority throughout all of CAR. 23 Multiple resolutions have been passed by the UN, especially recently, with Security Council Resolutions 2339, 2387, and the General Assembly Resolution 53/238 all passed in 2017. These resolutions all cover the protection of citizens, the abuse of human rights, arms embargoes, and the extension and function of MINUSCA. MINUSCA also is still a large part of fighting the conflict. It’s main goals include support for the transition process, facilitating humanitarian assistance, promotion and protection of human rights, support for justice and the rule of law, disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, repatriation processes.24 MINUSCA works to support all citizens and also plans for the future to keep conflicts from escalating. Many resolutions and UN documents also cover the protection of natural resources in CAR and the need for plans to save and harbor resources from illegal trade and destruction. One of the final and most important action has been funding CAR programs. The European Union has given millions of dollars in funds, along with the US, the Netherlands and the UN being the top contributors of funds in 2017.25SolutionsThe United Kingdom fully supports and recognizes CAR’s deep need for assistance from other countries. In order to support CAR, the UK would like to put into action our IPE program, a government reformation plan, a peacekeeper and army training program, an education and religious tolerance plan, and a refugee support system. One of the lesser known issues in CAR is that UN peacekeepers and army/government officials are perpetuating sexual crimes, violence, and theft. We can begin to resolve this issue by tracing it back to the training and rules that UN peacekeepers are receiving. At the very beginning and end of all trainings, UN peacekeepers must undergo classes on interacting with civilians and controlling their actions when they are on the job. If workers are more educated on the rules and how they still apply when they are on duty in other countries, the amount of crimes committed by the supposed protection can be lessened. Putting peacekeepers and officials through classes like this will give them the knowledge and motivation they need to help and not hurt when they are working. On the opposite side from peacekeepers, CAR citizens need support as well. There are thousands of citizens internally and externally displaced that need assistance. Refugees are fleeing to the DRC from CAR to seek a safe place to stay, away from the dangers of CAR. Internal displacement is also an issue for citizens who cannot leave, but are trapped from their homes and are in danger. Those who are escaping the dangers of the area they live in deserve and require care and a safe place to go. In order to assist those in need, we would like to work within CAR and with the DRC to institute refugee centers and places of contact for any person who may need it. Physical safe buildings in the capital of CAR, Bangui, and on the safest inner borders of the DRC will contain medical professionals to remedy any mental or physical issues that need attention, as well as emergency supplies like food and water. These safe buildings will also take any emergency calls that cannot be managed by the UN or CAR government, or are less urgent. If we can show CAR citizens that they have a real support system, the government and citizens can build trust, while helping those displaced and in need.One of the most major changes that should be made to CAR is our government reformation plan. Our first step in reinventing the government of CAR is to closely monitor elections to ensure no tampering, bribery, or threatening of conflict during voting periods. We also would take action to inform and encourage citizens to vote through easy access to inputting their vote, and public campaigns to encourage voting. Voting is a requirement for the transition of power, with safeguards and backup plans in place for any violent attempts for a change of power. Some safeguard plans would include presidential guards and government assistance. After improving the voting process, we will ensure that the President and Prime Minister have limited, but enough power, with checks and balances between the ministers and heads of state. The President and Prime Minister cannot be allowed to pass laws just on their own volition. Instead new laws and actions must be approved by a panel of ministers and representatives before being passed and put into action. Another side of the conflict is the religious aspect. Education could play a major role in improving this issue, with our education and religious tolerance program. Prejudice and difference in opinion are the main points that religious rebel groups employ to keep their fights thriving. We need to teach the community, presently and in the future, about how to avoid harmful prejudice. We would like to use open spaces in every city to give classes and information sessions. In working with the non-governmental organization (NGO) Teachers Without Borders we will theoretically be able to go all around the world with no prior prejudice against the organization. We will be ensuring that these teachers will show the community how to appreciate or at least tolerate religions that aren’t their own. Teachers could use visual aids to avoid any language barriers but it would be preferred if the teacher spoke the native language. Classes would also have exercises to help those who need to find ways to understand other religions. As the United Kingdom, we support the Secretary General in that there needs to be more light shed on the issue of religious intolerance. The secondary portion of education would include spreading the word about these classes and the issues religious intolerance causes. Not many people know what is happening in the Central African Republic, so we plan to make people more aware. We will get reporters and news channels to participate in helping people find out what is happening through the news. To do this we will bring reporters to the areas where religious issues are most prevalent. Reporters can then go back to certain areas or cities and spread the news. Next, we have created the IPE program. IPE stands for information, preparedness, and emergency. This three-point system will ensure that the citizens of CAR will understand and know what is happening in their own country. First, we will spread information in the form of education in schools and workplaces. During history lessons in schools, teachers will tell the students what is happening in their town. This would include who is fighting, why they are fighting, and what is happening in the government. We would make sure that the information we are giving is appropriate to the grade/age of the child to ensure no one is being overexposed to violence. The next step is preparedness. We will make sure that all citizens are prepared for any emergency situation that may arise. To make certain of emergency knowledge in all citizens, we will hold a meeting every month to ensure overall preparedness. These meetings will be held in a few towns over the course of a week and will be family friendly so to eliminate the search for a secondary caregiver while a parent attends a meeting. Meetings will include small games and food so that the children will have fun participating in their safety education. Many of these games will be preparing children to help their guardians in emergency situations, but will still be entertaining to keep them engaged. During meetings, the adults will receive handouts on a safe evacuation plan for when or if there is an invasion of their home or town. These will contain maps with a clear red line that shows how to get to our refuge safe houses, which are explained in depth above. We will also hand out kits of emergency supplies, like non-perishable food, water, flashlights, and emergency radio systems. Lastly, there is the emergency section. An emergency radio broadcast system will be spread all throughout the country in cases of emergency to regular televisions and radios, as well as the emergency ones provided to citizens, as previously mentioned. These broadcasts will include the location of incoming battles and invasions. This information will also be displayed on television screens to relay the same information. Television pictures will be a more visual approach so that the younger citizens can have an idea about what is happening. In conclusion, we believe in fighting for the Central African Republic, and that our solutions can eradicate the issues occuring inside of it.