Do the moment without first thinking about them and

Do
you have trouble concentrating, is it hard to sit still, interrupting others
during a conversation and acting without thinking things through? Can you think
of times when you daydreamed, and had difficulty focusing on the task at hand?
A lot of us can picture acting this way from time to time. But for some people these
and other behaviors are uncontrollable, and interfering with their ability to
succeed in school, at home and with a career. Unlike a broken bone or
cancer, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD does not show physical
signs that can be detected by a blood or other lab test. The typical ADHD
symptoms often overlap with those of other physical and psychological disorders.

ADHD
also known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most commonly
diagnosed behavioral disorder in children. It is a neurological disorder including
attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Hyperactivity meaning a
person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is
not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks (Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.). Impulsivity meaning
a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking
about them and that may have high potential for harm (Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.). Inattention means a person wanders off task,
lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and
these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.). ADHD
is an idiopathic disorder.

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ADHD
is not caused by poor parenting, falls or head injuries, traumatic life events,
digital distractions, video games and television, lack of physical activity,
food additives, food allergies, or excess sugar (ADHD: The Facts, n.d.). The
cause of ADHD is unknown, but there are many contributing factors. Some of the
factors include genetics, alcohol use, drug use during pregnancy, exposure to
toxins during pregnancy, exposure to environmental toxins, high levels of lead
at a young age, low birth weight, and brain injuries. There have been studies
done that believe and show that the frontal lobe activity in a child with ADHD
is abnormal of a child that doesn’t have ADHD. According to the CDC there are
ongoing studies and research being done on ADHD; the cause, proper diagnoses, medication
affects, and is ADHD rate increasing.

Typically,
People with ADHD show a continuous pattern of inattentiveness, hyperactivity,
and impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. The signs and
symptoms vary from child to child. In a younger child the sign and symptoms can
be mistaken as bad behavior, average toddler terrible 2-3 behavior, or hyper
child. Symptoms of ADHD will appear over the course of time. It is normal to
have some inattention, unfocused motor activity and impulsivity, but for people
with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe, occur more often, and interfere
with or reduce the quality of how they function socially, at school, or in a
job. ADHD symptoms may change as your child grows and develops (Recognizing
ADHD in Your Child, 2016). For example, young children may show more signs of
hyperactive and impulsive behavior. However, as the child enters elementary
school age, he or she may struggle more with paying attention and getting
distracted easily (Recognizing ADHD in Your Child, 2016). With teens, they may
experience special challenges related to social stresses including emerging
sexuality, establishing independence, and peer pressure (Recognizing ADHD in
Your Child, 2016). Knowing your child has ADHD takes a team of experienced health
care providers to do a thorough assessment on the patient.

Some parents can see inattentiveness, hyperactivity,
and impulsivity in their toddler before the child starts school. The child may
lose interest in playing a game or watching TV, and may run around completely
out of control. Children mature at different rates and are very different in
personality, temperament, and energy levels, it’s useful to get a medical
professionals opinion of whether the behavior is appropriate for the child’s
age.
Diagnosis of ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician,
such as a pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist with expertise in ADHD (Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.). Healthcare professionals use the
guidelines in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual, Fifth edition (DSM-5), to help diagnose ADHD (Attention-Deficit
/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),2017).  This diagnostic standard helps ensure that
people are appropriately diagnosed and treated for ADHD. Using the same
standard across communities can also help determine how many children have
ADHD, and how public health is impacted by this condition (Attention-Deficit /
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),2017). In addition, the health care professional
should take a complete medical history to screen for other conditions that may
affect a child’s behavior. There are other conditions that could mimic ADHD or
cause the ADHD-like behaviors.

With
there being no cure, treatment for ADHD should be closely working with health
care providers and other professionals, also treatment should be tailored to
the needs of each individual and family to help the patient control symptoms,
cope with the disorder, improve overall psychological well-being and manage
social relationships. There are different medications, trainings, and therapies
to help manage and cope with the disorder. There are training and therapies
available for the parents as well to help understand the disorder more, learn
to care for a child with the disorder, as well as support groups that allow
families to interact with other families dealing with the same thing.
Medications,
psychotherapy,
education and Training, are the used methods of treatment for ADHD. For medication
treatments there are stimulants and non-stimulants. The most common type of
medication used for treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.” Although it may seem
unusual to treat ADHD with a medication that is considered a stimulant, it
works because it increases the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine,
which play essential roles in thinking and attention (Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.). A few other ADHD medications are
non-stimulants, these medications take longer to start working than stimulants,
but can also improve focus, attention, and impulsivity in a person with ADHD
(Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.).  Doctors may prescribe a non-stimulant: when a
person has bothersome side effects from stimulants; when a stimulant was not
effective; or in combination with a stimulant to increase effectiveness (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.). Family
and marital therapy, and behavioral therapy are types of psychotherapy.
Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change
his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help
organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally
difficult events (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder, n.d.). Family and marital therapy can help family members and
spouses find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors, to encourage behavior
changes, and improve interactions with the patient (Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder, n.d.).

Children
with ADHD are at risk for potentially serious problems in adolescence and
adulthood: academic failure or delays, driving problems, difficulties with
peers and social situations, risky sexual behavior, and substance abuse (CHADD
– The National Resource on ADHD, n.d.). There may be more severe negative
behaviors with co-existing conditions such as oppositional defiant disorder or
conduct disorder (CHADD – The National Resource on ADHD, n.d.).  Adolescent girls with ADHD are also more prone
to eating disorders than boys.  As noted
above, ADHD persists from childhood to adolescence in the vast majority of
cases (50–80 percent), although the hyperactivity may lessen over time. (CHADD
– The National Resource on ADHD, n.d.).

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder can make life difficult for children. Children with ADHD often
struggle in the classroom, which can lead to academic failure and judgment by
other children and adults. They have more accidents and injuries of all kinds
than do children who don’t have ADHD, have poor self-esteem, are more likely to
have trouble interacting with and being accepted by peers and adults. Children
with ADHD can also have other conditions along with ADHD, like Tourette
syndrome, OCD, depression, and bipolar disorder just to name a few.

Follow-up
for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), varies and depends on the
patient’s profile, the clinician’s experience, and the access to healthcare
providers (Wilkes, M. A, 2017) After the patient’s condition is stabilized, a
follow-up frequency of every 6-12 weeks is often appropriate for the first year
(Wilkes, M. A, 2017). After that, patients whose conditions are stable may do
best with visits every 4 months to assess their medications and psychotherapy
may need to be continued for months to years. (Wilkes, M. A, 2017). ADHD is not
an illness for which one can hand the patient a prescription for pills and
assume recovery is automatic with the medication. Follow up care is extremely
important, the care providers need to ensure that the treatments and
medications put in place are having a positive effect on the patient.

It
is not known if ADHD can be prevented but there are recommendations of what
should be down to possibly lower the risk of having ADHD and having a child
with ADHD. Good prenatal care, well balanced diet, no smoking, and no
alcohol  are all round health conditions
preventative recommendations. For ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders,
primary prevention initiatives include programs that promote maternal health
during pregnancy, such as warnings against alcohol and cigarette use, as well
as initiatives to reduce environmental toxins, such as lead and mercury
(Halperin, J. M., Bédard, A. V., & Curchack-Lichtin, J. T., 2012).

As
stated ADHD is a disorder of unknown cause and cure. It is a disorder that
mainly effects younger children but can also show up in adults as well. ADHD is
a disorder that should be treated in the early stage to help the patient cope
with their everyday life. ADHD is also a disorder that family members of the
diagnosed need to go through some training courses to be able to help the
diagnosed by understanding what it is that they are dealing with. Patients can
live close to normal lives with continuous follow up care and treatment.