Early throughout their academic life as well as in

Early experiences influence later development. Child-rearing
can affect many factors throughout the child’s life. Motivation and academic
achievement are factors that can be greatly influenced by parenting style used
on children. Their attitude facing setbacks, future goals and performance in an
academic setting depends on how he or she is brought up. Parents can be great
influencers on their children as they spend most of their time at home other
than in school. Parenting style have life-long consequences on their children’s
social, emotional, mental and especially educational areas in their life. The
following literature reviews attempts to demonstrate and support areas involving
parenting style, motivation and academic achievements relating to this study.  

 

Hypothesis

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I
hypothesize that students who are raised with authoritarian parents will be
more intrinsically motivated in achieving academic success compared to students
who perceived their parents to be authoritative who in which will be likely to
be extrinsically motivated regarding their academics. For those students who perceived
their parents to either be permissive or neglectful, they will perceive their academics
with amotivation, lacking any motivation to engage in an activity,
characterized by a lack of perceived competence and/or a failure to value the
activity or its outcomes.

 

Parenting Styles and Motivation

 

Authoritative
Parenting style and Motivation regarding Academic Achievements

Schunk (2008) discussed that
when parents allows the child to have input and autonomy on decision, provide
other choices with explaining the benefits and consequence and letting the
child know that they understand their needs and feeling enhanced the child’s
motivation. Thus, help increase intellectual development of the child. By
stimulating curiosity within the child other than feeding them answers when
struggling helps the child be motivated when faced with difficulties. “Recent
evidence suggests that parental expectations for achievement formed in the
early adolescence can predict educational plans and career choices 12 years
later” (Schunk, 2008). Even though such parenting techniques are used when
students are just a child, this method that elicited such motivation follows
them throughout their academic life as well as in future years. A study
conducted by Hoang (2007) found that students who perceived their parents as
authoritative had higher tendency to have higher desire to learn information or
master a new skill with high abilities – mastery goal oriented. “…parents who
were perceived to be more authoritative…had adolescents who tended to adopt
goals that reflect intrinsic motivations, such as improving their abilities,
the enjoyment of learning, and overcoming a challenge” (Gonzalez & Wolters,
2009). Gonzales and Wolters had similar findings where it was discussed that students
who view their parents as authoritative sees their engagement in academic tasks
as a result of their own values and their higher feelings of autonomy in
pursuing and maintaining their academic behaviors.

 

            A factor
that needs to be taken into consideration is culture while looking into
motivation and parenting style relating to academic achievement. In the study
done by Van Campen and Russel, they found that Asian parents practice “chiao
shun” as a parenting method where it emphasizes harmonious family relationship
and not the domination of the child. The strictness that reflects Asian parents
comes from the belief that control is not only necessary but a key role for
parents (Van Campen & Russell, 2010).

 

Authoritarian
Parenting style and Motivation regarding Academic Achievements

            Children brought up by authoritarian
parents exhibit lower motivation levels compared to children of authoritative
parents which may suggests that they are extrinsically motivated. Students who
were brought up by authoritarian parents may be motivated in classrooms but possessing
the motivation to achieve for their parents instead of their own desire.

According to the findings of Gonzalez and Wolters (2006), students who perceive
their parents to being authoritarian tend to report that they have much greater
focus in doing better than their peers. “…students who saw their parents as
strict and dictating adherence to a clear set of parent-defined rules tended to
report a greater focus on doing their math work in order to outperform others”
(Gonzalez & Wolters, 2006).

 

            Contrary to the above studies,
research done by Schunk (2008) implied parents who are too controlling can reduce
a child’s motivation. He clarified that children with authoritarian elicits no desired
intention to gain knowledge and learn due to the pressure of needing to learn
something they don’t desire and have no control of, they will be less motivated
to have the desire to actually learn it. Similar findings from Kriegbaum et al.

(2016) found that among parents and children who doesn’t share objectives
correlated with a less beneficial motivational profile and academic
achievement. Stated from the study, “…college students who perceive higher
parental directing have higher amotivation and avoidance goal orientations…”
(Kreigbaum et al., 2016, p. 14). Showing that parents and children who do not
share similar academic goals will result in student having decreased
motivation, due to high expectations from parents and the need to always do
better. Extracted from the study of Senk and Demir (2015) “Results of this
study showed that the adolescents who perceived their parents as authoritative
had a relatively higher level of optimism than those who perceived their
parents as authoritarian” (Senk & Demir, 2015), proves that the optimism or
motivation level and achievement are different in relation to different parenting
style that the child has been raised.    

 

Permissive
and Neglectful Parenting and Motivation regarding Academic Achievements

            The following literature have shown
that permissive and neglectful parenting style have negative influences in
motivation and academic achievement among students raised in the two parenting
styles. In the Gonzalez and Wolterz (2009) study previously mentioned,
suggested that permissive parents have less adaptive motivation in their
children and students who perceive their parents with this style reported that
they are less concentrated in improving themselves or overcoming challenges when
difficulty is faced. It was concluded that the lack of encouragement or display
in encaging with their children from permissive parents displays low motivation
in academic achievement. Similar finding form Hoang (2007), in which he conducted
a study that displayed students raised by permissive parents had less desire to
learn something new. Boon (2007) stated that “…adolescents who perceive
neglectful parenting…had lower overall mastery and self-efficacy, and high
self-handicapping…”, he emphasized that the factors mentioned above are caused
by the lack of encouragement and support from parents as well as their lack of
appropriate parental academic involvement (Boon, 2007). According to Kriegbaum
et al. (2016), parents who aren’t involved in their children’s lives will
decrease intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels (Kriegbaum et al., 2016).

            In the study by Fox, Scholar and
Timmerman, they stated that children who perceived their parents to be
neglectful will feel less motivated to perform and leads to a state where they
lack any motivation to engage in something by lacking any competence or lacking
in any value of the activity. It was also resulted that there is a negative
co-relation between neglectful parents and intrinsic motivation in other words
the more neglectful the parents are the less intrinsically motivated the child
was. Gonzalez and Wolters (2009) gave explanation for this which is when
students or children do not expect their parents to be present in any school
events or show interest in their academics, the children will be less likely to
try as hard for those parents who actually do.

 

Motivation
as Predictor of Academic Achievements

The study conducted by Aasheim (2011) has two objectives-  to combine the factors that contribute to
academic achievement identified in the literature and to unify them under a
single framework and second, to find out what factors are perceived by students
as relevant to their academic achievement and to determine which are the most
important. Results indicated that the most important personal internal factors
are related to motivation, commitment, participation, and studying while the
most important external factors are support of family and friends.

The study by Hong &
Rowell (2013) discussed academic motivation. This study also indicated
motivational components that had been found to have an impact to student
learning, such as beliefs, goals, values, and intrinsic versus extrinsic
motivation. Academically motivated students tend to perceive school and
learning as valuable, like to learn, and enjoy learning-related activities (Eccles
& Wigfield, 2002; Zimmerman, 2000, 2008). Some more research indicated that
learning strategies and motivation have moderate explanatory value regarding
academic success and persistence (Coertjens,
et.al, 2012).

 

Other Factors influencing Academic Achievements

Discussed previously, culture affects and influences
parenting style and motivation regarding academic achievements. In the western
culture, it is expected from children to complete homework and are assigned
simple house chores. In the Chinese culture, children are expected to excel in
both academic and extra-curricular activities at the same time doing house
chores such as cleaning, cooking meals and looking after younger siblings.

Asian parents are believed and perceived to strict and this strictness is for
the protection of the children and not to restrain them. In the study of Bae (2015),
it is suggested that authoritarian parenting increases motivation in Asian
countries (Bae, 2015). In a similar finding done by Van Campen and Russell
(2010), it is found that authoritarian parenting can benefit children as authoritative
parenting does in relation to academics (Van Campen & Russell, 2010).

Theoretical framework

Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development in
relation to academic achievement

Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development identify a
series of eight stages in which a healthy developing individual should pass
through from infancy to late adulthood. Each stage or crisis builds upon the successful
completion of earlier stages. According to Erik Erikson’s psychosocial
development has eight specific stages where completion of each stage results in
a healthy personality and obtaining characteristic strengths in which our ego
can resolve if faced with future crisis. And failure to successfully complete a
stage would reduce one’s ability to complete further stages thus having a
unhealthier personality and a lower sense of self but it can be resolved at a
later time. It is said that one of the factor affecting current stages is due
to previous stages where individuals have trouble overcoming the crises within
that stage thus affecting stages ahead.

Identity
vs. role confusion (12- 18 years old)

•  
    the transition from childhood to adulthood
is most important. children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at
the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. the
individual wants to belong to a society and fit in.

•  
   this is a major stage in development where
the child has to learn the roles he/she will occupy as an adult. it is during
this stage that the adolescent will re-examine his identity and try to find out
exactly who he or she is.

•  
         Students
in this stage are still in the process of exploring possibilities to form their
own identity. They are still adapting to changes from being in primary school
to secondary school, where responsibilities in achieving and doing good in
school are being pressured on to them by their parents, teachers or peers.

 

 

Academic achievement in relation to academic
resilience

Academic resilience is the students’ ability to deal
effectively with academic setbacks, stress, and study pressure in the school
setting (Martin, 2001). There are four factors that predict academic
resilience, the C model of academic resilience: Con?dence (self-ef?cacy),
Control, Commitment (persistence), and Composure (low anxiety). Confidence is
the students’ self-belief of experiencing success. Academic achievers are dedicated
and persistent to become successful. Control is the students’ sense of control
and how they improve their work through hard work and effective study
strategies. Focusing on studies alone and valuing their priorities are how
academic achievers control themselves. Commitment, on the other hand, is when
students work towards their goals, even when they find things challenging, and
focusing on mastery. Composure is how students recover from failures and
mistakes. Academic achievers believe that setbacks will have a good comeback
for them and accepting their mistakes and learning from them will make them
recover from failure. Being able to face stressful events in life, resilient
individuals are self-determined, emotionally intelligent, adaptable,
problem-solver and has critical thinker skills and possess an internal locus of
control, sense of humor and general hardiness (Connor and Slear, 2009; McMahon,
2006; Niell and Dias, 2001, as cited in Splan, 2013).

 

Goal setting theory and academic achievement

Based on goal setting theory, humans are motivated by
future states of mind (Locke & Latham, 1990). Our goal is affected by our
behavior in four different ways; our attention, our effort to the task,
persistence and our strategy. Giving our full focus and attention in achieving
our goal will go a long way even if a little progress everyday adds up to big
results. Our goals mobilize our effort to the task which means that it created
the path in wanting to achieve. It also encourages our persistence. Goals makes
us develop strategies in achieving them. Goals must be specific and difficult,
and if one is not committed or intrinsically motivated and less likely to reach
them.

 

Self-determination theory and academic
achievement

According to the self-determination theory, there are two
parts of self which is the agent and repository factor. The agent part, ‘I’, is
autonomous and needs to be in control. Whereas the repository part, ‘me’,
involves values such as family, justice and sharing. When the ‘I’ side is
allowed to grow and developed skills and competence they become
self-determined. And the ‘me’ part internalizes the values that we obtained for
others who are important to us as we as humans are social and have a need for
relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1991).