Essay; some blood test can be different from one

Essay; on the Comparative Research Design, the
Matched-control experimental research Design and the Double-control design

In a research study there is usually an experimental
group and control group. Those in a control group will usually get no
intervention treatment. “Before” and “After” observations are done on both groups
and intervention is only introduced in the experimental group in order to find
out the impact caused by this intervention. If there is no standard treatment
those in the control group might get a placebo that looks as same but it is not
intended to have the same effect as the experimental treatment or they might
get nothing at all.

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A
controlled group is needed because people will naturally change from one day to
the next even without being in the study, someday people feel good and someday
they feel worse. Some time just knowing this study can change the way a person
feels even some blood test can be different from one time to the next because
of the things like diet, stress, hormones and sometime things change without
known reasons. Since everyone in the study will experience different natural
changes, researcher can measure changes in each person, add them together and
find the average for each group. If the average change in all group is the same
than the changes in any one person whether for better or worse or probably due
to natural variation and not whatever is being researched, however if the
average change in experimental group is much better or worse than in control
group, it is likely that now treatment is making the difference. The impact of
any intervention is equal to the difference in the before and after observation
in dependent variable between these both groups.

On
the other hand Double control design
helps the researcher to evaluate the impact that can be associated to
extraneous variables, which does not separate out reactive effect or placebo
effect. To separate out these effects the researcher needs double-control
design. The difference between the control and double-control study is that, in
control group researcher has only one control group and one experimental group
but here in double-control group the researcher has now two control groups. To
compute the reactive effect of an instrument the researcher prevent one of the
control group from the before observation. Then researcher tries to see the
different effects, calculated to see the changes caused due to the impact of
the intervention and reactive effect.

The comparative
design, which is comparatively
descriptive research design, the main idea in this type of design is to compare
one thing to something else; the researcher may want to compare the
effectiveness of various treatment modalities.  In comparative design the study can be done in
two ways; an experimental way and non-experimental way. In comparative
experimental design, the study population is distributed into the aforesaid
number of groups as the number of treatment to be tested for all groups.  There is a dependent variable which is
established with the help of a baseline after that different treatment models
are introduced for every group. After definite period, the ‘After’ observation is carried out to check the effect that whether
any changes has occurred in dependent variable or not because of using
different population group which are compared to establish relative
effectiveness among the various interventions. Identification of Baseline is
necessary because in non-experimental form of comparative design, post
observation is always conducted but many times pre-test observation is not done
on the comparability of the groups. Pre-test is conducted in each group to
recall the information’s related to the period before the introduction of
treatments. To understand it in a good way three models are compared to see the
effectiveness of education quality in three departments of PIDE ((Economics (A), Development study (B), Econometric (C)). Then divide
these into three groups(x, y, and z) through randomization. First we should try
to create a baseline for every group then expose each group through various
teaching model to teach the chosen subjects. Then among these three groups the changes
in average level is compared to see that which department has best quality
education or teaching model which is most effective as compared to others.

Match-control experimental design, the Match
group are most often then used for the testing of new drugs. The subject
(patients) are matched on certain characteristics, like sort of gender, age or
illness. There exist two different groups which are formed through randomization,
one group is provided with the treatment and the other is considered as a control
group.  

 In
Matched-control design, the
comparability is usually checked on the basis of one individual to the other
individual. When the two individuals from the study population who are almost
identical to each other with respect to a condition or any selected
characteristic likewise Gender, age or any type of illness are matched and
after that each condition or characteristic is then allocated to a different
group after that then the researcher through randomization will decide that
which group should be experimental and which one should be considered as
control group. In matched-control design there exist many matching problems due
to which matching becomes acutely difficult when carried out on more than one
variable and many variables are also hard to measure, and tough to know that
which variable to choose for matching.