GROUP largest deltas of river located in South Asia

                                              GROUP ASSIGNMENT:TITLE:-  SUSTAINIBILITY  REPORT ON BANGLADESH Group members: NO. NAME ID NO.1 Gurpreet Kaur 117008812 Sadicchya Shrestha 117016333 Sofia gurung 117011804 Muhammad vahid 117017175 Zarana patel 11701579TUTORE : SUNAINA  GOVANSUBMISSION DATE :        ? EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis report will discuss about sustainability of Bangladesh, which mainly focuse on detailed information about pollution. And how pollution  is affecting country. Moreover, It will also discuss about how climate change affects the different sectors such as agriculture and fisheries, coastal area and also water resources and hydrology of country. Furthermore, it will focus on some solution to come up with climate change. The efforts, which are taken by individual person, government and trust. It will describe the policies such as raising fund, government’s .policies, legislative regulations etc.? IntroductionBangladesh has got one of the best fertile lands in the world because of the largest deltas of river located in South Asia with coastline of 580km on the northern of the Bay of Bengal. It has got a population of 163millilon with life expectancy at birth of nearly 63years and an adult literacy rate of 47.5% (WHO, 2016). Bangladesh has land area of 147,570sq.km include mostly of floodplains almost 80% leaving main part of the country liable to flooding during rainy season (Denissen, 2012).  Moreover, Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate distinguished by wide seasonal variations in rainfall, high temperatures and humidity. Due to unexpected climatic events such as High temperature, Cyclones and Storms Surges, Sea level rise, Salinity Intrusion and Heavy Monsoon Downpours, etc has affects the overall development of the country to great extent. Climate change in Bangladesh is the major reason to create dramatic changes in the scale and complexity and implication of migration in human history since 1947.Presently, despite of being one of climatic susceptible countries in the world Bangladesh is doing reasonably well in the area of sustainable development. Since 2008, it has managed to maintain its economic growth at the average of 6% p.a. (Sustainabledeveleopment.un.org, 2012). In addition, sustainable development covers 3 different dimensions economic, social and environmental. They are raising the issues related to various sectors of human interest and incorporating the environmental concern in its total planning process. This report presents the principle of sustainability ensuring that all existing resources to maintained for future generation. Living sustainability is about living within the means of natural systems or environment and ensuring that lifestyle does not harm society and culture of Bangladesh.? Purpose of the reportThe purpose of this report is to analyze the impact caused by climate change. At the same time, who responsible and what measures can be taken in order to prevent from those problems on the society in Bangladesh.? Method of researchThis report mainly focuses on sustainability resources for the future of Bangladeshi people and how the people are living within the means of unexpected climatic events ensuring not to make any harm on society and culture. The data in this research is based on secondary source collection from various online articles and journals.3.0factore that are responsible for climate changeBangladesh is highly vulnerable to natural disasters and faces various environmental problems such as air pollution, global warming, deforestation, soil erosion, climate change, river pollution, natural calamities and depletion of biodiversity because of its population density, illiteracy, geographical location, poverty, lack of maintaining environmental laws and awareness. (NCDO 2018) The factors that are responsible for climate change affecting a country Bangladesh are as given below:? Geographical location? Individuals ? Government Policies? Industrial Manufacturers     3.1 Geographical locationBangladesh is with a unique natural resource base where about 80% of the country consists of wetlands with over 300 rivers in the Riverina network that sustains rare wildlife floodplains, flora and fauna and distinctive but diverse ecological systems across the country. The main factor responsible for climate change is because of flood frequently, cyclones and extreme temperature and drought is the problem in north and north-western regions of a county (UN.ORG, 2018).?   IndividualsPeople are responsible for creating pollution in the environment such as soil pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, air pollution and industrial pollution by dumping waste disposal of every human that produces, buried wastes, drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil throwing every electronic waste and also oil and fuel dumping causing the pollution which creates the environmental degradation which affect in to the climate change. And also discharge of solid waste and domestic hospital sewage which are the serious problem in the environment which release hazardous and toxic wastes without any treatment. People are more using of transportations like vehicles creating a sound and air pollution. Due to large amount of increasing population and uses of their automobiles and industrial emissions is the main source of pollution which affects the climate. In additional, maximum use of the burning of fossil fuels during cooking with poor ventilation and new technology has created the climate change (Bangladeshenvironment, 2018).? Government PoliciesGovernment of Bangladesh (GOB) are primarily responsible for creating the right conditions and incentives for private parties to manage risks from climate change impacts and make efficient investment decisions, and for managing to be aware of the threats by change in climate and there should be efficient way by planning policies to manage such as Air, soil, noise, water pollution in both urban and rural areas, forests, climate and had to be more focused in developing programs (NCCARF, 2012). Also, there are fewer policies which initiate to start comprehensive plans at national level as part of its preparedness. There must be strict rules and regulations to stop waste materials of industries which care the one of the main source of problem for climate change. Government needs to introduce some eco-friendly measures for manufacturer from disposing-off production waste to minimize smoke during production process and similarly, there is lack of policies to tackle the noise pollution which is causing the pollution in the environment. Besides, unlike developed western countries, where government has to play vital role to control by taking more methods to reduce problem by educating people, both manufacturers and employees, about climate change. Though government has developed the strategies for sustainable development but there is need to make more regulation regarding manufacturers to stop the pollution which is changing the climate. ? Industrial ManufacturersManufactures are the one in large amount who is responsible for climate change that affecting a country. The main industrial areas of Bangladesh are at Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, and Bogra districts. The mostly contributing industries for water pollution are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, metal processing, food industry, fertilizer, pesticides, dyeing and painting, textile, tannery etc. It has also been found that the factories and industrial units depend on their chemical effects; production process type, location, raw materials, and discharge of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants to the natural environment cause the intensity of pollution. The  Waste  coming from industries or other sources has the high  amount of toxic heavy metals which create a problem for environment. (Yadav et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2005; Singh et al. 2004). 4.0 Sectorial impact of climate change on BangladeshFirst of all, Due to global warming and climate change effects Bangladesh experiences natural disasters. Almost 80% areas of Bangladesh is in a danger of getting floods. South and south eastern parts of the nation over were hit because of tropical cyclones throughout the most recent few years. Moreover, North and also north western locales of Bangladesh affected by high levels of temperature problem.                4.1 Agriculture and fisheriesThe farming sector plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. It contributes 20% of GDP (gross domestic production) of country. Most of the population of Bangladesh is mainly depends on agricultural activities.it is approximately 2/3 of the total population is directly or indirectly related to farming. “The crop yield is declining every year in the Bangladesh due to rainfall, humidity, length of day and tropical heat etc. it is also affected by natural disasters such as floods, droughts, intrusion of water and soil salinity, cyclone and storm surges.”(Sikder & Xiaoying, 2014 ) Because of all this reasons the cultivating land of Bangladesh is declining day by day.Global warming also affected the fisheries sector of country. Fishing sector of Bangladesh contributes 3.5% of the overall GDP of country. People also depend on fish product to satisfy their primary needs. There are around 260 types of different species of fish and they all are sensitive to specific salt and freshwater condition.           4.2 Coastal areas People who are living in a coastal area of country are directly and indirectly affected by coastal floods, river bank erosion, salinity and tropical cyclones. In Bangladesh one fourth of total population are living in coastal area. Increasing see level up to one-meter leads to bring 15% of land in to the see water and 30 million people become Refugees who are living in coastal area. Moreover, this coastal area of country is totally undeveloped area of Bangladesh. “In these parts of country there is lack of proper work for people. Some of the families and in some cases the main member or head of the family move to other cities due to getting job to maintain their household expenses.”(kabir et al.,2016)     4.3 Water Resources and HydrologyThe effects of global warming on the surface and ground water resources are also critical issues. Changes in water level and hydrology are create a greater effect on countries economy where most of the part of population depends on Irrigation, Fishery, Industrial production, Navigation and other similar activities5.0Solutions / Measures to Climate Change in BangladeshAn article from National Geography has placed Bangladesh at high risk for climate change in future years.  Because of its geographical location, it is most likely to get affected by tropical cyclones, storms and tidal surges. Moreover, the land is surrounded by active Asian Monsoon zone as well. However, steps to deal with Climatic change in Bangladesh are not too remote or complicated but accessible and practicable.Steps to overcome environmental degradation are? Raising funds? Governmental management policies? Community-Based Adaptation to Climate change? Legislative Regulations       5.1 Raising Funds:Large amount of funds are needed for development and improvement of Infrastructure system to raise awareness and to meet the challenges of early warning that Bangladesh is facing. A study report by the World Bank in 2010 explains that since 1960, the Government of Bangladesh invested $10 billion on such structural as cyclone shelters, polders and cyclone-resistant housing, and non-structural as awareness and early warning raising system that helped country to overcome disaster and augmented the reduction measures, but over last few years, there was a noticeable reduction in funds. Hence, in order to fight future disaster, more funds are needed to inject-in to enhance its preparedness systems.      5.2Governmental management Policies:While Bangladesh has strong environmental and natural resource management policies and regulation, there is still need for: Integrating environmental protection and management into national planning strengthening environmental institutions, especially to respond to the Bangladesh’s rapid urbanization, industrialization and growing pollution. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) needs to be aware of the threats posted by change in climate and need address in efficient way by planning management policies such as Air, soil, noise and water pollution management in urban and rural areas, forests, climate and Resilient Rural development programs. Also, policies should be initiated to start comprehensive plans at national level as part of its preparedness. The aforementioned causes such as noise pollution, pollution from industries and factories can be well handled if GOB can introduce some eco-friendly measures for manufacturers, from disposing-off production waste to minimizing smoke during production process by using quality fuel, to adopt in an attempt to curb the threats to environment and similarly, policies can be introduced to tackle the noise pollution. Besides, unlike developed western countries, where government plays vital role to control adverse impacts of this problem by educating people, both manufacturers and employees, about climate change, GOB can also follow such strategies to overcome this soaring issue. Therefore, GOB’s move is required to implement such essential policies and procedures to achieve risk-free environment.      5.3 Community-Based Adaptation to Climate ChangeAwareness programs can also be initiated among individuals to educate them and raise awareness about the threats to country’s environment. Not only can people learn about impacts of climate change on their health and their country, but they can also take part in miscellaneous welfare activities, which will eventually reduce deteriorating impacts to the environment. According to World Data Atlas, Bangladesh’s literacy rate in 2016 was 72.76% which is increasing every year, therefore, thanks to technological advancement which can play an important role in educating people about effects of climate change to environment by starting online programs on social media such as Facebook, twitter and the like where people spend most of their time on daily basis. Moreover, folk dramas, talk shows and documentary programs can be arranged for those community members who are limited with technology.        5.4  Legislative regulations:Another measure that has been proven to be successful in many developed nations is to introduce laws and regulations and implement to ensure people follow those legislations. The dismal social and environment performance of these organizations as evidenced by fire incidents at several garment factories, which claimed hundreds of human lives (Zaman, 2001). It is also well known that the health hazards created by the tannery companies in the Hazaribagg area (Bangladesh) by the discharging of untreated wastes and effluents in the neighborhood and the nearby rivers. In addition to that a large number of industrial units located on the bank of Buriganga, Karnaphuli and other rivers are polluting the rivers bodies every day (Nurunnabi, 2002). Hence, the environment minister should take notice to such deteriorating factors and implement stringent regulations that enforce manufacturers and producers to adopt eco-friendly measures in production process and penalize them if they fail to follow these mandatory rules.6.0 ConclusionBangladesh is critically vulnerable to hazards of climate change, but the main elements of its vulnerability are primarily contextual. It is probably the only country around the globe with major part of its territory lying on the deltaic food-plain of three major rivers and their numerous tributaries. Between 30-70 percent of the nation is induced by flood each year. The low coastal topography contributes to coastal inundation and saline intrusion inland. Bangladesh also lies in a very active cyclone corridor that transects the Bay of Bengal. The societal exposure of such risks is further increased by its very high population density, with almost to 800 persons per square kilometer in such areas as the coastal zones. There is therefore a need to clearly address whether climate change impacts are simply one more reason to lower contextual via business as usual economic development, or whether adaptation to climate change might need suitable modifications in highlighting the need for entirely new activities. The aforementioned measures, if implemented successfully, may help to reduce climate change adverse effects in Bangladesh, which are indeed too dire to ignore.7.0 References          Denissen, A. (2012). Climate Change & its Impacts on Bangladesh. NCDO online Available at: https://www.ncdo.nl/artikel/climate-change-its-impacts-bangladesh Accessed 26 Jan. 2018.Sikder, R., Xiaoying, J., (2014). Climate Change Impact and Agriculture of Bangladesh. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, Vol.4, No.1, 2014 35, Pg. 36.Md. Khan, S., Iftekhar, S., (2012). Rio + 20: National Report on sustainable development. online Sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/981bangladesh.pdf Accessed 26 Jan. 2018.End Poverty in South Asia. (2011). Bangladesh: Mapping climate change and food security. online Available at: http://blogs.worldbank.org/endpovertyinsouthasia/bangladesh-mapping-climate-change-and-food-security Accessed 26 Jan. 2018.Huq, N., Hugé, J., Boon, E. and Gain, A. (2015). Climate Change Impacts in Agricultural Communities in Rural Areas of Coastal Bangladesh: A Tale of Many Stories. 7th ed. MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland: Sustainability.Alam, G. (2018). ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION OF BANGLADESH – IT’S EFFECT AND CONTROL. online Bangladeshenvironment.com. Available at: http://www.bangladeshenvironment.com/index.php/polution-s/294-environmental-pollution-of-bangladesh-it-s-effect-and-control Accessed 26 Jan. 2018.Smith, A., Lingas, E. and Rahman, M. (2018). Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. ebook University of California, Berkeley, USA: World Health Organization. Available at: https://scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862000000900005&script=sci_arttext Accessed 26 Jan. 2018.Book CitationCorporate Social Responsibility Reporting in Developing Countries – By Ataur Rahman Belal, 2008Online- WebsiteThe World Bank (IBRD-IDA) http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/10/07/bangladesh-strengthening-bangladeshs-environment-natural-resource-management E-Journals(Vulnerability of Bangladesh to Climate Change and Sea levels Rise- By Saleem-ul-Huq, Ahsan U. Ahmed, Rob Koudstaal – Volume 37)Khan AW et al. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effect on human health with particular reference to Bangladesh. Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 1997, 16 (1): 65?73.         Dhar RK et al. Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Paper presented at the International Conference on Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Bangladesh: Causes, Effects and Remedies, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 8?12 February 1998.  Available online: https://scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862000000900005&script=sci_arttextReferencesM.F. Hossain. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 113, Issues 1–4, April 2006, Pages 1-16Rasid, Harun, and Bimal Paul. Climate Change in Bangladesh : Confronting Impending Disasters, Lexington Books, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/kingsowninst-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1574400.Ahmad, J.U. & Goni, M.A. Environ Monit Assess (2010) 166: 347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1006-6http://daily-sun.com/printversion/details/211962/Environmental-Pollutionin-Bangladesh-http://probalrashid.com/photo-stories/pollution-in-bangladesh/https://scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S0042-96862000000900005&script=sci_arttexthttp://www.bangladeshenvironment.com/index.php/polution-s/294-environmental-pollution-of-bangladesh-it-s-effect-and-controlhttp://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Air_Pollutionhttp://pollutionreport.blogspot.com.au/2012/04/industrial-pollution-in-bangladesh.htmlReferenceshttps://www.ncdo.nl/artikel/climate-change-its-impacts-bangladesh http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12650940 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/981bangladesh.pdf http://blogs.worldbank.org/endpovertyinsouthasia/bangladesh-mapping-climate-change-and-food-security http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/7/7/8437/htm