In that must be followed by researcher. First, minimize

In doing research, there are five main
ethical principles that must be followed by researcher. First, minimize the
risk of harm to participants. This principle stress on how a research should
not harm participants by considering all aspects that could bring harm such as
physical harm, psychological distress and discomfort, social disadvantage,
financial status or an invasion of participant’s privacy and anonymity. Non-maleficence
requires a high level of sensitivity from the researcher about what constitutes
“harm” (Ford L., 2009). Discomfort and harm can be physiological,
emotional, social and economic in nature (Burns N., 2005). By acknowledging these
risk aspects, interventions to avoid or minimizing the risk of harm could be
taken by researcher.

Second, attain informed consent from
participants. The idea of informed consent is one of the foundations of
research. Informed consent means the knowing consent of a person without undue
inducement or any element of force, extortion, duress or any other form of
constraint or coercion. It is the researcher’s responsibility to provide sufficient
information in understandable language on the benefits and possible risks prior
to their involvement in the research, so that participant can make an informed
judgement about participation. Informed consent is a process, not a form, when
it was done appropriately, the process assures that participants are willingly
participating in the research with full knowledge and information of relevant
risks and benefits. Those people with diminished autonomy such as young
children, very ill people or mentally disable should be protected.

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Third is, protect participant’s
anonymity and confidentially. Another practical component of research ethics is
by protecting the anonymity and confidentiality of research participants. Protecting
anonymity of information collected from participants means that either the
researcher does not collect personal information of participants such as name,
address, email address, job title, length of services or the researcher does
not link individual responses with participants’ identities. Unless it is
necessarily essential to the study protocol, participant’s personal details
should be keep ‘anonymous’ to protect the participant identity. Nonetheless, permission
should be obtained before any confidential information is disclosed.

Forth principle is, a dissertation research
should avoid any kinds of deceptive practices. Deceptive may not be
seen as an issue if an informed consent has been performed, however the
question is, how can the participants know what the research requires of them
if they are being deceived? this question makes the use of deceptive practices
controversial. Therefore, dissertation research should avert any types of
deceptive practices. However, deception is sometimes needed in covert research
where the identity of the observer and the purpose of the research is not known
to participants. This is most likely to be the case where a research requires
an observation rather than direct contact with participants, for example;
observing what customers are doing in an internet chat room.

Lastly, providing the right of
participants to withdraw is one of the principles of research ethics that
should be followed by researcher. Participants should have the right to
withdraw from the research process at any stage and when the decision to
withdraw was made, the participant should not be pressured or coerced in any
way in order to stop them from withdrawing. According to Good Clinical Practice
(GCP) guidelines, an individual can withdraw from research at any point of time
and it is no binding of the participant to reveal the reason of
discontinuation.

 These
basic principles of research ethics should be taken into account when
performing a research as it can help to ensure that researchers can be held
accountable to the public, in terms of human right, social responsibility and
public health and safety. Researchers should be reminded that any ethical
lapses in research can significantly harm the subjects and lead to low quality
research study.