Introduction useful in treating and reducing the conditions of

 

Introduction

Arthritis
is a painful issue characterized by inflammation, which leads to pain with
stiffness in most of the movable joints of human body. i.e arthritis is a common joint disorder caused by
inflammation  (Gary S., et al ) .

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There are more than 100 diagnosed
kind of arthritis in world wide but among these
types two are mostly common which are rheumatoid arthritits and
osteoarthritis, which
mostly occurs during age and affects the fingers, knees, and
hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune
disorder that
mostly influence the hands and feet ( Stephen I. Katz et al ).

An autoimmune
disoder is an issue
of arising from unsual immune response to a normal part of the body.
Kinds of autoimmune disorder  are approximate to 80 kind of diseases, mostly
any part of the body can be the cause of inflammation which leads to such
condition ( Beth A. Collins-Sharp et al ).

Inflammation is
a kind of complicated biochemical reaction of body tissues to forgien stimuli,
such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and
its a protective call commit the immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators  ( Ferrero-Miliani L et al ).

Studies shows that boswellia may reduce
inflammatory reactions which leads to inflammation and its also be useful in
treating and reducing the conditions of  osteoarthritis
(OA) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to anti-inflammatory
activity of  boswellia, it can be useful
painkiller and also reduce the chance of loss the cartilage (Almekinders LC et al ).

Boswellia
Serrata is a gum resin tacken from a tree, which is sometimes scald (the entire
species of Boswellia is usually known as Frankinsence) as aromatic its
administered as
alternative medicine. It has most usage as
medicine in the Ayurvedic medicine ( Safayhi H, Rall
B, et al ) .

Boswellia
Serrata, and its active ingredient  boswellic
acids, shown to be a novel inhibitor for a pro-inflammatory enzyme named
5-Lipoxygenase and it may have other anti-inflammatory effects (such as nF-kB
inhibition, which are not as novel). (Tawab MA, et al).

The
anti-inflammatory effectiveness of Boswellia, unlike several
anti-inflammatory chemical medicines, does not cause any kind of adverse
effects on blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, or other autonomic
responses, and the resin possess remarkably low 
level of toxicity ( Goyal S, Sharma P et al ) .

The gum
resin of Boswellia was added to the list of safe compounds
and its use is approved by US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as a food
additive ( Raja AF, Ali F, Khan IA et al ) .

Since
ancient age, frankincense has been used in many regions  such as Africa, China, India, and the Middle
East countries for the treatment of several illnesses, especially chronic
inflammatory diseases e.g arthritis ( Safayhi H, Rall B
, et al ) .

Iraq, similar to several
Middle Eastean countries, is categorized into two societies: rural and urban;
both of these societies depend largely on the huge traditional heritage of the
usage of medicinal plants for the treatment of different kindes of illnesses,
hence folk medicine is widely practiced by the people of the cities and the
inhabitants of the remote areas or the nomads who generally inhabit the desert
areas of the steppe and the uplands ( Abu- Irmailleh BE, Afifi FU et al ) .

Iraq has over than
363 medicinal plant species that belongs to nearly 270 genera from estimated 98
families (Mohmod et al; 1988,
Ghazanfar 1994; Chakravarty, 1976).

The B.
serrata when tested on Papaya Latex Model, present considerable activity of
about 35% suppression of inflammation. This model throws some light on its
mechanism of action which appears to be differ than aspirin and several steroidal
drugs (Gupta et al., 1992).

Olibanum
which is an B. serrata resin, sweat from cracks in the bark of Boswellia species.
In this work chemical investigations were applied on olibanum resins obtained
from Boswellia species. Since ancient age it has been used in asset
medicine for its antiseptic, antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. For
this reason, in the last 20 years olibanum has gained increasing attention from
scientists to better define its medical effects and identify the constituents
responsible for these effects.

The
aim at this point was to  studuy the antiarthritic activity of B.
serrata in rats induced with rheumatoid arthritis and. Finally, it was also
aimed in this study to identify the pharmaceutical important molecules from the
resins and their biological properties. It was supposed that assessment of anti-inflammatory
activity, antioxidant properties, assessment of biochemical markers, and its
histopathological analysis after animal study. Moreover, it was planned to find
out the fate of the biologically active triterpenoic acids and to observe the
change in their activity to their former state with pharmaceutical bioassays.

According
to above review; we need to study the various biological properties of B.
serrata, So, the following steps should be performed

1.     
Extraction of Boswelia seratta  by different extraction method like hot
aqueous, cold aqueous, hexane and methanol etc.

2.     
Phytochemical
screening of the extract by conventional method and TLC , HPLC and GCMS-MS.

3.     
study the acute
cytotoxicity of the extract by using five radical screeing methods.

4.     
study the
antioxidant activity of the extract by using free radical scavenging method .

5.     
Induction of the
disease using collagen or BSA .

6.     
Divide the
animals to control (-ve ) , control (+ve) and experimental .

7.      Assessment of the biochemical markers such as
LPO,GSH,Cat,SOD, NO .

8.      Assessment of inflammatory markers such as IL-1B,
IL-6,TNF-a,IL10,  IL-y

9.      study the histopathological changes before and after
treatment .

10.  evaluation the potent of extract .