IntroductionThe equations. These weren’t literal physical tables that you

IntroductionThe first thought that comes to mind whenever we hear the word “computer” is the heavy hunk of machinery and wiring that rests warmly on our desks. When we really consider what a computer is, it becomes more complex when we have to consider whether smartphones or robots are computers. However, despite this, the term “computer” has never been historically simple as we once considered use of gears as computers or punch cards as programs within a computer.The first ideas of a computerThe term “computer” originated from the term “human computer”, in which a human computed data. In the 17th Century it referred to the use Trigonometric tables to help humans with mathematical equations. These weren’t literal physical tables that you put computers onto, they are the rows and columns filled with data that we still use today. Each of these tables served a specific purpose such as a star table can be used by astronomers to figure out the angular area of the star. Using these tables, mathematical formulas were calculated and computed by the humans using them. These humans are what are called “human computers” and this became their occupation. Due to this, these aren’t the modern computers that we think of. When we think of a modern computer, we also think of automatic applications that can do the mathematics for us, in the modern age, these are simply tools. A real computer would do these mathematics for us.The developing idea of the analogue computerThe purpose of an analogue computer is to present data that is constant, data that shouldn’t really be stored and is constantly changing. Two famous examples of analogue computers are the Turing Machines and the ancient Antikythera. The antikythera mechanism is estimated to have been built in the year 82BC, and was uncovered in 1900. It was only discovered in 1948 that the purpose of this machine was to follow the pattern of the five known planets at the time. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. And the sun, which was also considered as a planet.The antikythera wasn’t a large machine taking up a lot of space with a lot of gears, it only had 72. It was a flat device which looked like a clock, but instead of telling the time, it just showed the position of the planet relevant to the earth at the time. To use this as an example from before, at this time you could not mathematically explain where Saturn is from the earth. You could point at it if you find it, but you couldn’t give a mathematical distance. The Antikythera, as an analogue computer simply shows you where Saturn is in relation to earth. This kind of mechanical clockwork inspired the eastern islamic clocks which eventually led to what we use as clocks today. So instead of using a trigonometric table and a human computer to figure out where the stars or planets are, an analogue computer made up of gears was created to do the work for the human.The developing idea of the programmingThe Turing Machine is a more modern analogue computer. Before the modern computer can be truly made, we have to remember what can be made on it. When we think of a modern computer we know of applications that we can use, and then the languages that were written to write use those applications. Each of the programming languages are simply programmers finding simpler ways to communicate to the computer using the computer’s language. ┬áThe Turing Machine was the biggest inspiration to actually developing this computer’s language.Before explaining how the Turing revolutionised human-computer interaction, it is important to consider how programming was thought of at the time. A basic example of a programming language being used before the turing machine are punch holes for looms in factories during the industrial revolution of the 1800’s. Before mechanical looms, a human would have to manually apply the material to the right place, pull and then when the line is complete, pull on the frame. This is a lot of manual labour to create a lot of products to meet demand, so this process was ought to be automated. Punch cards were developed for each line of wool and were fed into a spring reader. The loom would react depending on how many holes in the punch cards that the pins fell into.The development of the programming language has not yet been fully digitalised. At this point, the turing machine used what is described as an “infinitely long tape”. This tape is split up into squares so that a number can be printed into it by a machine head. The machine is basic as all it can do is read a number, write a new number and then move the tape. However, it is still more advanced than the code itself at this point, as where the numbers are simply booleans of either 1 or 0, the machine can read blanks and react to this too. If instructed to write some numbers, it will check if a square is blank before writing a number. With these numbers, the machine can then read and react to the written numbers which has been inputted by the user. You will tell the machine what to write when a number has been read, and then how to react to this once the number has been written. For example, you tell the machine to write 1 1 0, then you tell the machine to re-read the numbers and re-write 0 to 1, and 1 to 0, and then move until it finds a blank