Screening hearing loss is an important treatable disease of

Screening
is one of the most important methods of early diagnosis of treatable diseases
in children and hearing loss is an important treatable disease of childhood
1.  The prevalence of bilateral hearing
loss is substantial, particularly in neonates admitted to the neonatal
intensive care unit (NICU) who frequently present with risk factors for hearing
loss. The prevalence of significant bilateral hearing loss in this group is 1–3
%, which is 10 times higher than that in the well-baby nursery population 2.
Furthermore, early intervention in hearing-impaired children (aged 6 months or
earlier) improved their language and speech outcomes as well as their
socioemotional development 3–5. Congenital hearing loss has been recognized
for decades as a serious disability for affected children, with a delay in
diagnosis of 2 years or more being the rule rather than the exception 6. In
1993, the National Institutes of Health recommended that every newborn infant
have a hearing test performed in the first few months of life7.
Yoshinaga-Itano et al 8 demonstrated the significantly improved outcomes for
children who have congenital hearing loss and received early intervention when
compared with a cohort of similar children who did not receive the benefit of
early screening and detection. Similarly, independent of specific screening
protocols and measures of screening follow-up success, affected infants who
were born in a hospital with an established screening program had significantly
improved outcomes when compared with those who were born in hospitals that did
not screen 9.

Hearing
screening can be done by two ways

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Targeted
(High risk) : In targeted hearing screening 
high risk newborn are screened. High risk new born criteria is defined
by Joint committee on infant hearing. Year 2007 statement 10.

Universal
new born hearing screening: All newborn are screened for hearing impairment

            Techniques used to assess hearing
of infants must be capable of detecting hearing loss of this degree in infants
by age 3 months and younger. Of the various approaches to newborn hearing
assessment currently available, two physiologic
measures (Brainstem auditory evoked response BAER and Evoked otoacoustic
emissions EOAE) show good promise for achieving this goal.

           BAER has been recommended for
newborn hearing assessment for almost 15 years and has been successfully
implemented in both risk register and universal newborn hearing screening
programs, Follow-up studies of infants screened by this technique demonstrate

acceptable
identification of infants with hearing loss.

            EOAEs have been introduced for risk
register and assessment of newborn hearing. Follow- up studies of infants
screened by this technique are limited but suggest that EOAEs can identify
infants with hearing loss of approximately 30 dB HL and greater. Hearing loss
of 30 dB HL and greater in the frequency region important for speech
recognition (approximately 500 through 4000 Hz) will interfere with the normal
development of speech and language. 11Screening
is one of the most important methods of early diagnosis of treatable diseases
in children and hearing loss is an important treatable disease of childhood
1.  The prevalence of bilateral hearing
loss is substantial, particularly in neonates admitted to the neonatal
intensive care unit (NICU) who frequently present with risk factors for hearing
loss. The prevalence of significant bilateral hearing loss in this group is 1–3
%, which is 10 times higher than that in the well-baby nursery population 2.
Furthermore, early intervention in hearing-impaired children (aged 6 months or
earlier) improved their language and speech outcomes as well as their
socioemotional development 3–5. Congenital hearing loss has been recognized
for decades as a serious disability for affected children, with a delay in
diagnosis of 2 years or more being the rule rather than the exception 6. In
1993, the National Institutes of Health recommended that every newborn infant
have a hearing test performed in the first few months of life7.
Yoshinaga-Itano et al 8 demonstrated the significantly improved outcomes for
children who have congenital hearing loss and received early intervention when
compared with a cohort of similar children who did not receive the benefit of
early screening and detection. Similarly, independent of specific screening
protocols and measures of screening follow-up success, affected infants who
were born in a hospital with an established screening program had significantly
improved outcomes when compared with those who were born in hospitals that did
not screen 9.

Hearing
screening can be done by two ways

Targeted
(High risk) : In targeted hearing screening 
high risk newborn are screened. High risk new born criteria is defined
by Joint committee on infant hearing. Year 2007 statement 10.

Universal
new born hearing screening: All newborn are screened for hearing impairment

            Techniques used to assess hearing
of infants must be capable of detecting hearing loss of this degree in infants
by age 3 months and younger. Of the various approaches to newborn hearing
assessment currently available, two physiologic
measures (Brainstem auditory evoked response BAER and Evoked otoacoustic
emissions EOAE) show good promise for achieving this goal.

           BAER has been recommended for
newborn hearing assessment for almost 15 years and has been successfully
implemented in both risk register and universal newborn hearing screening
programs, Follow-up studies of infants screened by this technique demonstrate

acceptable
identification of infants with hearing loss.

            EOAEs have been introduced for risk
register and assessment of newborn hearing. Follow- up studies of infants
screened by this technique are limited but suggest that EOAEs can identify
infants with hearing loss of approximately 30 dB HL and greater. Hearing loss
of 30 dB HL and greater in the frequency region important for speech
recognition (approximately 500 through 4000 Hz) will interfere with the normal
development of speech and language. 11