The amount of glucose is found to be maximum in the leaf samples of tetraploid cytotype followed by the stem samples. The root samples of the teraploid cytotype also contain a considerable amount of arabinose. Trehalose is detected only in the fruit and the root samples of the diploid cytotype (Graph 13). Fructose is a major component of fruits, fruit juices, honey and corn syrup (Park & Yetley 1993). Earlier, sucrose, glucose and fructose were found as main sugars in fruits of P. angulata (Macías-Rodríguez et al. 2002).
5B.1.5 Phenolic acids and flavonoids
In the present study, 10 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids have been screened in the intraspecific cytotypes of Physalis angulata (2x & 4x).
Caffeic acid was found to be in highest amount in tetraploid cytotype of fruit (0.169%), and in leaf samples the amount of vanillin was highest (0.27%) in acidic solvent extracts of diploid cytotype (Graphs 14-17). In stem samples vanillin (0.074%) was found to be highest in chloroform solvent extracts of tetraploid cytotype. The root samples also contained equal amount of caffeic acid (0.045%) and vanillin (0.45%) in methanol solvent extracts of tetraploid cytotype (Graphs 14 & 15). These also contained good amount of ferulic acid (0.041%) in chloroform extracts of tetraploid cytotype.
Compounds like caffeic acid also have good antioxidant properties and also considered as an important part of the defense mechanism and is widely distributed in plant tissues and is produced by shikimate pathway. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are in vitro antioxidants and fight against diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Morton et al. 2000; Olthof et al. 2001)
Among flavonoids catechol is found to be in the highest amount in fruit (0.99%) and stem (0.438%) of the diploid cytotype and in the root samples (3.84%) of the tetraploid cytotype. Rutin is found to be in highest amount in leaf samples (2.26%) of the tetraploid cytotype of acidic solvent extracts (Graphs 18-21).
Rutin is a dietary flavonoid and possess many pharmacological industries (Buszewski et al. 1993). Quercetin is the most common flavonol in fruits and green vegetables. According to Nabavi et al. (2012), it is also used for obesity treatment. Ahmadu and Omonigho (2013) reported the presence of quercetin in Physalis angulata. It also exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-oxidation, anti-asthma and anti-tumor properties. Earlier, rutin was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata by Huong (2016). It is also reported in Physalis peruviana (Angelo & Jorge 2007, Huber et al. 2007). Licodiedoff et al. (2013) reported 78.64 µg/100 g in Physalis peruviana by using HPLC.