Urbanization that Shanghai needs marvelous solutions for the nation’s

   Urbanization is an increase of a population in cities and towns versus rural areas. It is one of the most powerful events that has conquested all over the world.  This made a lot amount of population to move and accelerated economic and social development. China has a population of 23,019,200 and 12.21 million people from Chinese population lives in urban areas. Especially Shanghai has 1.1% of Chinese population.(“Shanghai”)  However, it also caused serious environmental problems. Shanghai, China is one of the biggest and populated cities in the world. They have been suffering from a severe environmental problem, air pollution that was caused by urbanized society. For the efficient urban planning in Shanghai, active solutions are desperately needed.          Shanghai is a megacity that has a base for the Chinese industrial technology and they have both modern and traditional features. It is located on the east side of China. China has faced rapid urbanization due to China’s economic reform in the late 1970s and made it the world’s highest urban population with an incomparable urban population. (“urbanization”) A study found out that almost 57.4% of Chinese population is living in the rural area on the end of 2016. However, urbanization has caused some serious problems. The urbanized land and population is imbalanced so urbanized areas are overloaded. This caused irreducible environmental issues like air pollution, water pollution, biodiversity, and cancer villages. (Lallanilla) Among these, the most crucial problem is air pollution. In January 2013, the air quality of Shanghai was the worst in its history that the air quality of almost 35% of the days on the first three months of 2013 was very dangerous to health. Also, on December 14th, 2016, the air quality alert system found out that the air quality index of Shanghai was about 400 to 450 which is ‘hazardous’ level.(“Air”) Still, the extreme air quality level is not showing a big difference from the past years. This means that Shanghai needs marvelous solutions for the nation’s health.    First, there are some effective solutions in Delhi, India that China can learn from. India’s air quality is second worst in the world, following to China. On November 8th, 2017, air quality stations have reported the air quality index of 999, which is way above from 150, the air quality that is safe to breathe. This is very hazardous because breathing in this toxic air is like smoking 50 cigarettes in a day. (Irfan) Hospitals in Delhi have reported that 20% of the patients are suffering from respiratory diseases that are caused by terrible air quality. Also in November 2017, the government had to close about 1800 primary schools for three days. (Schultz) Air pollution in India has been an emergency long-term problem and finally, Delhi’s government came out with a structured action plan to solve this problem. This action plan is called the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP) and clearly indicated what different agencies in India can do to solve this problem. It was very interesting because cooperation of many agencies will speed up the problem solution. There are 7 agencies that have specific  roles to do: Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB), Environment Pollution Control Authority(EPCA), Delhi Pollution Control Committee(DPCC), Transport Department/DTC/DIMTS/DMRC, Traffic Police/Delhi Police, Municipal Corporations(MCDs), and PWD/CPWD/NHAI. Also, there are NCR states, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, that have roles to do. For example, CPCB has to monitor the air quality steadily in different stations and report to EPCA to determine actions other agencies must take. Usually, DPCC stops construction, use of diesel generator sets, and spread the urgent issue by various kinds of media. Transport department increases public transportation services to make sure more people use public transportation to minimize the emissions from the cars. This is connected with MCD’s work which is enhancing parking fee by 3-4 times. Also, DPCC runs a control center, smartphone application(Whatsapp), and email to get advice and complaints from the citizen. (Joydeep) This is actually a brilliant idea since government, agencies,  and citizens can be easily connected. Also, there are NCR states, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, that are in charge of monitoring the whole situation. They can give feedbacks to GRAP to develop the action plan. Shanghai should come out with a collaborative action plan like GRAP and open to the public to work all together as one city.      Secondly, there are some general solutions. The most basic and essential one is to strengthen laws and regulations for the citizens. Making legislation and regulations is the best way to control a lot amount of people with clear standards. The government can add regulations about banning rules about using own cars. For example, there is ‘no car day’ in Korea which cars that include a certain number cannot ride their own car on that day. This will lead more people to use public transportation. Using renewable or green energy source is not only beneficial for air pollution but also for urban planning. Since fossil fuel and coal are the main cause of air pollution, using alternative energy will last longer and prevent further air pollution. Raising awareness through campaigns and advocacy is a very important thing. Majority of citizens are aware of the problem and seriousness but they are not really educated about the ways to prevent and overcome the problem.The government must make some public service advertisements that can draw both kids’ and adults’ attention. Also, there can be problem-relate contests ran by government or agencies.For instance, government can run an ‘air pollution solution drawing contest’. During the research about their drawing and doing brainstorms about their ideas, the participants will get wider range of information about the problem. Recycling is also necessary. Burning trash makes horrible toxic gas that can cause dangerous air quality. In example, used glass bottles or jars can be used again as a cereal jar, pickle jars, syrup bottles and etc. Planting trees can be the easiest thing to do. Most of the trees emit organic gases to the atmosphere which helps purify the air. Not only emitting the gas, they also take up ozone and nitrogen oxides. Korea has a ‘tree day’ on April 1st, which is a day for people to plant trees and have a time to think about the importance of planting trees and having trees around us. These several small solutions should come together and spread to more citizens to participate and make a huge change. (“5 brilliant”)      In conclusion, China must come out with innovative solutions to solve air pollution as soon as possible. There are two main brilliant ways to solve this problem. First one is to make different kinds of organizations or agencies that are related to the air pollution and collaborate all together to work efficiently. Delhi, one of the most air polluted city, has a clear action plan to monitor and take action for the solution. The action plan shows that even though they have separate roles, their works are all connected and have continuation.  Second way was few sets of general solutions. There are